The Original Idea of the Book of Changes and Its Archaeological and Philological Proof:
Numeral Groups, Oracle Bone Scripts and Yi-Classics
易经有那些内容呢？你看主流学界就把它说成这样: 象，数，易，理，占， 这就只说了五个。 他们把这“卦”不谈了，“辞”也不谈了，你说这是不是阉割？ 恰恰是这两部分是最重要的东西。
第二大就是生成规律。这个生成规律很有意思的，我们把它写一下: 2的0次方得1，2的一次方得2，2的2次方得4，2的3次方得8，好，你看这个：太极生两仪，两仪生四象，四象生八卦。孔子是讲什么呢，是讲幂，老子是讲什么呢，道生一，一生二，二生三。所以，他们都是在讲生成规律。两个人讲的是一样，只不过讲的方式不同。老子讲的是指数，孔子讲得是幂。其实两个人讲的都是一回事。所以说生成规律，就是这么表述的。你说，从原子，原子的分裂，原子核的分裂，一直到细胞分裂，一直到我们史前氏族组织至部落的形成, 都是按照这个规律进行的。你说原子核分裂, 细胞分裂，染色体有丝分裂。哪一个跑得出这一个规律？所以这些东西啊，都是很基本的东西，都是宇宙中最基本最普遍的规律。它们被易经总结出来了。
第三大规律就是循环， 我们易经的五行循环，你看: 生克关系, 金生水，水生木，木生火，火生土，土生又金。你看这是循环吧，你看我们现在什么不在循环中，生态循环，能量转化，很多东西都跑不脱这个规律。你看我们这个地球生物圈，水圈，氧气圈，空气圈，这些新发现的圈，都属这个规律。这我就不细讲了。
卦是什么呢？其实，人家这个卦英文的翻译就比我们高明的多，你看翻译的什么叫做八卦？ 叫做Trigram, Tri-gram 是什么意思啊？大家知道不？Trigram 就是三元组合，我们八卦确实是这样，就是在两种符号中任取三个，它只可能有八个排列组合，就是八卦。
当然这些英文的名词还不是最科学的定义，最科学的定义是什么呢？就是莱布尼茨，德国的大哲学家、大数学家——西方的微积分就是他发明的、大逻辑学家，是三百年前的人，叫莱布尼茨，他给了最科学的定义，他说：六十四卦、八卦是什么呢？他说是一种能够表达文字，算术， 抽象和推理的独特方式。这是他对易卦的最科学的定义。你说这个定义不得了啊! 四种啊!把人的理性的思维方式都包括进去了，一个文字，一个数学，第三个抽象，第四个推理，你想想，这个莱布尼茨真不得了，人家为什么这么高明，因为他本身就是个了不起的人，欧洲把它称为是Genius, 说他简直是天才的天才，欧洲整个现代的科学体很多是他奠基起来的，他就非常崇拜中国的易卦，他说伏羲的易经是整个这个宇宙科学的里程碑，他说伏羲早就发现我发现的二进制系统。你们知道我们现在的计算机基本原理都是莱布尼茨给我们搞来的，我们现在计算机的这个0、1系统就是莱布尼茨创造的，所以他现在是计算机之父，真正的计算机之父。他说: 我发现的这个二进制数学，人家伏羲4600年前早就已经发现了，我不过是重新发现而已。这是他讲的，他是讲了这些话，但是西方一些学者最怕这些话了，说他是发疯了，说你怎么能把这么伟大的功劳归功于中国人那里去了呢？他说：我作为一个科学家我不得不这样，不得不实事求是地讲这个事。但是中国人也有些跟着吆喝，说莱布尼茨发明的二进制不是从八卦中启发出来的，好多人包括现在大陆的好多学者还是这么说。但是现在凡是想出莱布尼茨的书的，大家都怕把这句话搞上去，特别是在西方。 我是怎么看出来的呢？是在他写的私人的德文信里面看出来的，我还专门把它做了复印件，我就是怕被他们掩盖了。我要说：每一个有良心的中国人要记住莱布尼茨的这个定义，这是对易卦最科学最准确的定义。当然理解这个定义， 需要花很大力气, 你像到有些人现在不承认我们的文字到底是怎么来的？其实文字确实是从易卦来的，它确实有表达文字的能力。我后面再讲。算术，它更不用说，易卦的算数能力，大家知不知道台湾的一个科学家（沈宜甲 1978）研究的，他说这个易卦把所有的高等数学都包括进去了。它不只是包含一个什么数学定理，不是像西方的数学定理，它是包括好多的定理进去了。它的抽象能力，它的符号系统，我刚才讲了，它本身就是最高级的符号系统。再一个，它的推理, 而且还有机器来推理证明，刚才不是我说了么？ 现在大陆的吴文俊他就是用这种推理，甚至把数学定理用机器来证明。你说这是的不得了？所以这个定义我希望大家记住。至少要像英国语样回答，叫Trigram, Hexagram, 这是最起码的。像莱布尼茨这样回答那就更高级了。希望大家记住。
卦的科学定义就是刚才讲的莱布尼茨的这个定义。他的这个定义真是最全面、最系统也最客观卦的定义，因为他是伟大的逻辑学家，他就说了一句话，他说：“我为什么敢断定中国人在4600年前就已经开始用二进制了？”为什么呢？他说：“我为什么敢这样断定呢？他说：“根据我在逻辑上的分析，从数学的抽象到哲学的抽象，没有几千年不可能实现。”他说：“现在中国人易经用的是哲学的抽象了。 ”我跟大家讲，你看中国人是用这两个符号卦来表示八卦，已经是哲学的抽象了，它不是用数字了，它是哲学的抽象。就是说用阴阳符号来表示的卦叫做符号卦。他说：“在以前肯定是用数字来表示的数字卦。从数学的抽象到哲学的抽象，他说没有几千年是绝对不可能的。”反过来看也是这样，如关于万有引力的认识，三千多年人就有哲学的感知，即文王说的“物无不落”，但是用数学把它表现出来是牛顿定律了。他说: “中国人现在能够用抽象符号、用哲学符号把它表现出来，肯定是在4千多年前他们已经用二进制系统了。”你看他说的完全正确，非常有道理；但是我们中国人认识不到，认为这些东西好像是天上掉下来的一样，真的是大悲剧。我过一会儿再讲这个道理。
第二个特点，周易确实是当时的周文王周公为首的集体写的，这是可以证明的。我这本书里的第二卷第四册有系统的证明。确实是他们，不是其他人写的。他们是怎么写的？他们当时在易经之外写了很多书。包括这个《周髀》，《周书》，《逸周书》，《周礼》，已经很多书了。现在我可以证明很多易经的内容都是这些书里提要。他的某一篇文章与一个卦有关，这文章的提要就成了这卦的卦辞和爻辞。所以,它的卦辞、爻辞都是这么来的。他为什么这么搞呢，他们就是为了把他们的教导让他们王室的成员能够接受，让他们的天下能够保持万年。这是他们直接宣布的，他说“我们为什么要把这个教给你们, 就是要让你们懂得这些宇宙规律，懂得做人的道理了，把我们周家的天下保持万万年。”他们自己在书中就是这么讲的。所以，这本书并不是为我们大家写的，是为他们的王室子弟保持周家的天下能够远传万代，他们才把这些真理告诉他们的。这里面确实是真理，是宇宙的真理。他们认为这些很宝贵的，是不能够外传的，只有他们的王室子弟才能知道。如果这些宝贵的真理流失了，被别人掌握了，他们的天下就有危险，所以他们只想传给后代。后来怎么传出去了呢？后来不是周朝衰落了吗，他们这个王权开始被诸侯抢夺了，所以这个时候呢，他的内部的文书，通过他们亲戚的诸侯下传了，比方说鲁国，鲁国是周公的后代，他们就把这些东西透露出来了。为什么山东这些地区老是出很多名人，包括孔子，他为什么得到的东西很多呢？那就是因为他们近水楼台先得月，他们能够第一手得到周易这些东西。再一个是楚国，因为楚国是与周王室有亲戚关系， 所以楚国也得到很多东西。这两个地方把很多周易的东西保存下来了。所以，我建议大家，你要学周易就不要看东汉以后卜筮之书说的东西了。那些东西确实都是胡说八道的。他们根本不理解易经。真正要看就要看这几本书，周代的书。这确实是这样，我们发现他们的文章和易经有好多的相同点。他们当时这些书也是用这个甲骨文和金文写的。所以同周易一样,很多东西也不好翻译，现在也不好注释，这《逸周书》更加难懂了。《逸周书》是周文王早期的著作。尤其是因为它失传了，后来呢，又发现了。如通过文物市场，发现了重要的一篇文稿，就是文王给他大儿子个姬发，即周武王的遗书，你看这是多重要的文献，都失传了。最近才从文物市场中发现了，被清华大学收藏了。他的这个遗书就叫做《保训》。他这个文献很重要，里面专门就提到了阴阳规律。就是“分阴阳于两极而立中”，里面记载了这样一个规律，非常重要，所以，如这些东西孔子没看到，他怎么能知道呢？所以，也难怪孔子了。所以，大家真的要想把易经要学好，把周易要看通，请大家把这几本记住去看。这本是专门搞数学的《周髀》，这是天文数学的。这些是《周书》、《逸周书》、《周礼》，特别是《逸周书》很重要，而且我建议大家呢不要用网上的，网上有些是搞得乱七八糟了。一定要找什么版本呢? 就是找这个以前的香港中文大学的版本，是可以的。为什么要是香港中文大学的？大家都知道那里有位饶宗颐，他是个很有研究的人。他把这个搞得比较正确了。我建议大家去读这些书，你才能真正地把周易学懂。
14. 同人卦爻辞， 损卦卦、爻辞
好，我就来讲这几个例子，不是刚才大家问了这两个卦? 我就用这两个卦作例子，当然我没时间讲全这两个卦，我只是讲这两卦的其中几句。大家不是说这个同人卦，这爻辞叫做“同人于野”，这是什么意思？你说不看周书的人对这句话不完全理解，其实看周书的人就会“很明白。 “同人于野”就是讲周武王集合了很多人在这个牧野地方，大家知道牧野吧？牧野就是在殷代纣王国都朝哥附近的一个郊区，郊区之外就是叫野，当时他是在牧野。他当时集合800多个氏族，即800多氏族的军队，大概五万多人，联合起来，在牧野集合了，把商纣王推翻了。那当然不需要后悔了，这个是好事，需要后悔么？所以，它说“同人于野，无悔”。这是个很简单的问题。如果你把周书看懂了，这是个很容易的事情。这有什么这么难呢？所以没有什么难的。
让再讲这句爻辞，“利贞，往凶。弗损，益之”，它这个意思：就是当时有些人想不出本获利，就是无本获利，就是说“我不搞投入，还想得利”。这句话就是这个意思， 他说有这种思想的人，肯定将来有凶险，将来一定有危险。因为哪有可能你无本获利这个可能呢？凡是做生意的人肯定就不相信这个无本获利，但是有些小人呢，就是想这样，想投机取巧，无本获利，想一本万利，搞这样的生意。这个卦爻就是说你这样搞下去是不行的，你可以一时搞，但是搞下去呢，你一定会糟糕,会凶险。这句话就是这个意思。然后第二句话就说“三人行”这活，就是围绕着回答这个问题，他说为什么你无本获利不行呢？他说损和益是矛盾的双方是不可能脱离的。你有益就必须要有损，有损呢才有益，这是个矛盾的对立体。它这个“三人行”就是这个意思。那三人行为什么一定要损去一个人呢？因为事物一多了呢，他肯定会向两级发展，就是我们说的两级分化，所以它是这个意思：三人行必损一，就是两级分化的意思。任何事情只要多了它就会向两级发展，你说是不是？那后面呢，为什么一个人就必须有二呢，因为凡事物都要一分为二，是一个就要变为二，所以就变成友了。就是我刚才讲的那个规律。所以它这个三人行的爻辞就是讲的这个意思。就开始解释为什么无本生意不能搞，因为它说的是益和损是个矛盾统一体，不可能单独存在一方, 你一时搞成了，但是以后还是要投入的，你不投入也不行呢，不然会吃大亏，这就讲的损和益的辩证法。这个易经，它每一卦都是讲矛盾的，它都是道阴阳的。所以，庄子是完全说的对的，你不懂得对阴阳矛盾的认识，你不可能把周易看懂，所以它是一个有机整体的辩证法，他们老子，孔子这些先师，之所以有这么辩证的认识都是从这里来的。你看我们易经经文讲的每一卦，每一卦都是讲它特定的矛盾。这一卦专门是讲损和益的矛盾，讲的损和益是矛盾的统一体，有损必有益，有益必有损，不可能单独存在，而且还互相转化，所以这些问题，它本身讲的都是非常辩证的。我就是简单讲讲，我们今天没有时间多讲了。
Yi-Classics (Book of Changes) in History
1. What is I-Ching (Yi-Classics)？
For today’s lecture, I have prepared lots of content. I would use one and half hour for the lecture and leave half hour for questions and discussion.
Due to short time frame, I will not expand in detail, and only focus on few basic knowledge and common concepts.
Alright, lets start, about I-Ching. As we all heard about I-Ching (Yi-Classics). Already well known by the world, I-Ching is the original root of Chinese traditional technology and culture. Very likely, this is acknowledged globally, and unarguably. Chinese people would all agree to this statement.
Transcribed and passed on generation after generation in more than three thousand years, I-Ching has assimilated among us and deeply inside our minds, influencing our logics, psyche and behaviors. Therefore, Chinese have lots of traits that are different from other nations.
One example, our children have strong ability in learning math and perform better than others. Chinese are also very good at commerce. Not to elaborate any more, to say, Chinese has lots of excellent traits while also possessed many at disadvantage.
As influenced by I-Ching, it gives us latent abilities deeply rooted in our life, thoughts, and perceptions. Under this circumstance, our perception on I-Ching is very critical. If our subjective view is aligned with our latent abilities, our nation will become very outstanding. If the two are misaligned, it will cause dire effects. I could even dare to say, the most righteous Chinese people are in China, the most malicious ones are also present in China.
If your subjective view contradicts your latent abilities, it will distort your personalities in extreme ways. This would be terrible. Therefore, it is very critical on how we understand I-Ching in a correct way. This determines the direction where our Chinese nation will progress in the future.
Give you some examples in the past.
Before 17th Century, Chinese civilization had advanced relatively fast in both technology and culture. It was because we had accurate perception on I-Ching.
After those periods, there were downfalls. This was because we had up sided down the original meaning of I-Ching and treated this as the book of divination.
As you see, the first time I-Ching was regarded as the book of divination, started from Ban Gu in Eastern Han (25-220 AD). Since then, up till Northern Song Dynasty, Chinese civilization had experienced its first subjugation.
The second time, regarded as book of divination by Zhu XI in Southern Song Dynasty (1127 – 1279AD), China was again subjugated by Mongolians. During and after Yuan Dynasty, the work of Zhu Xi – Four Books and Five Classics became the Imperial Exam materials. This led to the chaos and atrocity during the (invasion)domination of Manchurian.
Whenever the wrong perception on I-Ching became prevalent in China, there would be downfall of Chinese civilization. This is an enormous problem. Thereby, how we understand I-Ching is a significant issue associated with the future and progression of the entire Chinese civilization. However, many of us have not realized this seriousness. This is a tragedy for all Chinese people.
This is the reason why I have shared the article Three People In Company. You will see the author has discovered this issue as well. Since Confucius’ time, the interpretation of I-Ching had started to be deviated from the original meaning. Therefore, I have emphasized and proposed that Chinese people must focus on the original true meaning of I-Ching. It is very important.
As serious as you can imagine, a sage like Confucius could have inaccurate understanding on I-Ching. The scholars after him would have deviated their interpretation even more!
Resulting from this, our knowledge and understanding on I-Ching has gone astray. The original meaning of I-Ching is lost, and this is the greatest peril in our nation.
Therefore, in order to revive our Chinese nation, we must first revive our understanding on I-Ching. Without this approach, it is impossible for our nation’s revival.
This is what I am promoting: how to accurately and correctly understand I-Ching is very crucial.
And the revival of Chinese nation requires revival of the study of I-Ching. Without revival of the study of I-Ching, Chinese people will not find the path to revive their nation, because, there is no correct guidance for progression. We will not have a correct and reliable faith in our culture. We will never be brought together.
A nation with no faith, thus will have no future.
Originally, Chinese people’s faith was in I-Ching, just like religions in other cultures, Quran, Bible, they have faith in those books.
Why don’t Chinese people have faith now? Why are Chinese people no longer united? This is because, they don’t have any faith in common. They have lost original way in understanding I-Ching.
Why were there so developed the Chinese technology and culture before Hang Dynasty? This was because of I-Ching. Why were the Chinese technology and culture so strong in the period of Han and Tang Dynasties? It was because the people had faith altogether and had a common path of ideology. Therefore, the nation prospered.
Every time when we distorted the meaning of I-Ching, the Chinese people became separated. Not only that we need to understand the true meaning of I-Ching, but also, the evidence of its original meaning.
Even not fully understood yet, at least accurately understanding some part of it is still progressive for all of us.
What is the original meaning of I-Ching? This is what my lecture topics cover today.
Very important question. What is I-Ching?
Maybe everyone wants to ask this question at the start. This is also the question I would ask in my lectures every time. Do you have a basic idea about I-Ching? What is I-Ching?
As my Chinese fellows, can you answer this question?
I believe as Chinese, this is something basic to know, some common sense you must have.
However, regarding this question, I don’t see many of you can answer it correctly or accurately.
As you see in China nowadays, when mentioned I-Ching, many will say “eh, this is for fortune telling, or something related to this”.
This is an absolute distortion.
I can introduce a concept to you. What is I-Ching?
No, it is not. If it is change, is its positive change or negative change?
If you mean positive change, please define it in detail?
If I-Ching is all about study of positive changes, is it comparable to so many other books about positive changes as well?
Hehe, we cannot use this to define I-Ching.
Let me share with everyone a postulation: I-Ching is a summary of the entire laws of the universe by which everything is governed.
Don’t quote me on this, I did not start this statement myself. This concept is mentioned by an English I-Ching Scholar Diana ffarington Hook. If anyone interested, I recommend reading her book in English I-Ching and You.
However, she did not invent this idea, but promote this idea based on evidence discovered by many other scientists. My intent is to share this concept with everyone today.
I should not further elaborate on behalf of her, since she has gone through lots of studies and researches. However, I would say this concept is initially concluded from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a prominent German philosopher, and then also based on findings and conclusion by many English and German scientists.
As you can see, the western sages are ahead of us. They have concluded this answer in a perfect way with much scientific sense to the question what I-Ching is.
In fact, our ancestor had concluded this long time ago, but we have all forgotten about it.
Very long ago, our ancestor had pointed this out.: What is I-Ching? The Way of Yin and Yang. This is the answer!
Right? I-Ching is the study about Yin and Yang. It elaborates Yin and Yang.
What are Yin and Yang? It is the law of the universe.
What is Dao? Dao is the law of the universe. The Dao of Yin and Yang or the law of Yin and Yang. This is I-Ching.
Our ancestors made much sense of it in rationality and scientifically, however, ages later, we all forgot about it, and some people called it a superstitious book. This is very ludicrous!
Such a precious knowledge is ruined to superstition. Isn’t it a humiliation to Chinese nation?
Nevertheless, this superstitious concept was then revered and elevated, and even became Imperial Exam materials.
Don’t you think this is upside down?
Chinese people have taken many wrong paths.
Let us remember this concept, I-Ching is a summary of the laws of the universe.
2. The content of I-Ching covers everything
What is the content of I-Ching?
Mainstream study has only promoted five study areas of I-Ching: Images, math, Concepts and definitions, theories, and measure.
They have intentionally ignored “Symbolic groups”, as well as the “documentation”. Don’t you think this is annulation of two most important aspects of I-Ching?
When we investigate all aspects of I-Ching, there are seven key areas to study (Images, math, Concepts and definitions s, theories, measure, symbolic groups and documentation).
Where do you find such comprehensive knowledge like I-Ching, covering everything in the world?
The form in which that I-Ching exists is where the artificial intelligence is working towards. For example, math of I-Ching is very much related to algorithm that has been utilized in development of artificial intelligence. There are so many algorithmic formulas in ancient China. When you discover a new AI algorithmic formula, Al will have one leap forward. However, there are many ancient Chinese algorithmic formulas that are all in oblivion. The algorithm in manipulation of 50 yarrow stalks, and the Book of Zhuishu, and our ancient higher-order equations, have all been forgotten! If we focus and revive any one of those from oblivion, it will be phenomenal.
Another example on math in I-Ching, our worldwide famous Professor Wen-Tsun Wu who developed Mathematics Mechanization and Mechanical Geometry Problem-Solving is based on the foundation of ancient Chinese arithmetic algorithms.
The study of “symbolic groups” will be discussed later.
“Images” is simple for you to analogize fingerprint and facial image.
“Documentation” can be related to machine translation nowadays.
The “concepts, definitions and theories” are what I mentioned about the Mathematics Mechanization.
“Measure” is way more complicated; it is not like the “Divination” people is thinking about.
What is “Measure”? It is about inspiration thinking, Image thinking, and a lot of more innovative thinking methodologies. It is all about cerebral science. However, very few have done any research on this. People has distorted the understanding of “Measure” and have been on a wrong path to develop this area of knowledge. “Measure” has included many kinds of thinking methodologies, especially inspiration thinking, which is still left blank in today’s science. Artificial Intelligence is moving towards this kind of thinking algorithms.
I-Ching has already provided us the guidance. The westerners have learnt about it and deduce from it; however, Chinese have not seen the true value in I-Ching nowadays. What a waste!
3. Yi of Lianshan, Yi of Guizhang and Yi of Zhou
Why do I start the topic on “modern form” of I-Ching?
The so called “modern form” indicates that I-Ching is manifested in maturely developed inscriptions after Bronze age. I will cover the topic on prehistoric form of I-Ching later in this lecture.
The Yi-Classics (I-Ching) has been evolved and developed from Yi of LianShan, which was written in Xia Dynasty (BC 2000), and then Yi of GuiZang (BC 1400). Until now, the Yi of Zhou version(BC 1100) that we are reading is the third version. Therefore, the Yi-Classics has inherited many elements from previous versions.
For example, the names of hexagram, as I can prove based on evidence that many names of hexagrams came from Yi of Lianshan, which is from Xia Dynasty. To be specific, the 36th Hexagram Darkening Light is directly from Yi of LianShan.
Another example, the 1st Hexagram Heaven already existed in Xia Dynasty. However, it was not written like the modern text we see. It is called TianMu (Heaven observation). The 2nd Hexagram Earth, is called ChuanMU (Earth observation). However, now we called it Qian (heaven) and Kun (earth). These ancient texts written for I-Ching are assembly of two pictographs.
The Emperor Yu of Xia Dynasty (BC2000), was originally called JiuLong (Nine Dragons). Then these characters were transformed into the character Yu, it has been through a long process of evolution.
We were not able to recognize these characters before archaeological discoveries. As the discoveries unveiled these oracle-bone inscriptions, people start to realize that the Hexagram Qian was originally written as “Heaven observation”, and the Hexagram Kun was written as “Earth obsevation”.
The Character “Nine” from Xia Dynasty, how was it written originally?
It was written like this “∨”, this means “Nine”, and then became part of character. Therefore, you are not able to recognize these without knowing oracle-bone inscriptions.
Given above examples, the Yi of Zhou was developed from Yi of Lianshan, then Yi of GuiZang, from Xia Dynasty to Zhou Dynasty, which has been through a long history of evolution.
4. The Four Fundamental Laws of Universe in Book of Changes
As I have mentioned, I-Ching is a summary of the laws of the universe. People will ask, what ways does I-Ching generalize? Since this question has been raised, I will explain to you. It generalizes four fundamental laws, which are cleverer than Hegel’s three laws of dialectics
Let me share some detail in brief, as we don’t have much time.
The first fundamental law is the law of the interpenetration of Yin-Yang, this would be known by many.
I-Ching is about the law of the interpenetration of Yin-Yang， the fundamental law of everything, so as construed by Hegel’s central feature of a dialectical understanding of things – the law of the unity and conflict of opposites. This is one of his three laws of dialectics.
The unity and conflict of opposites share the same representation as the law of the interpenetration of Yin-Yang. In fact, the law of the interpenetration of Yin and Yang is more generalizing than the unity and conflict of opposites.
The second fundamental law is the Generative Law or the divisibility of matter.
There is something interesting that I would like to share with everyone:
2 to the power of 0 equates 1;
2 to the power of 1 equates 2;
2 to the power of 2 equates 4;
2 to the power of 3 equates 8.
Ok, check this out, the Taiji (the beginning) generates two Yi (two primal forces), the two generate the four Xiang (four quintessence), the four generate the eight trigrams. This is what Confucius said, which are the powerful numbers.
What did Laozi say? The Dao begot one, and one gives two, and two generates three. This is generative law
The two sages had been preaching the same law, but in different manifestations. Laozi was talking about the power, while Confucius was about the powerful numbers. This is the manifestation of Generative Law
Some examples for reference, the formation of atoms, the fission of atomic particles, the biological cell division, and our ancestor’s clan organization transforming to tribal formation, are all generally conforming to this law.
The fission of nucleus, the cell division and mitosis, none of these have escaped this law.
As you see, it is not hard to concur that these are the fundamental laws of Cosmos, and they are generalized by I-Ching.
The third fundamental law is Cycle or the negation of the negation.
I-Ching has concept of the Cycle of Five Phases. It is a promoting and inhibiting relationship:
The solidity promotes water;
the water gives life to organics;
the organics carbonized through combustion;
the combustion turns into residuals,
and the residuals promotes the formation of solidity.
Don’t you see this is Cycle? Our life is filled with different kinds of cycles, the cycle of ecosystem, the transformation of energy, and many which cannot escape this law.
Some more references, a biological life cycle, cycling of oxygen, cycling of air, and many other newly discovered cycles, all belong to this law.
The last one, the fourth fundamental law: The Law of Organic Whole.
The Law of Organic Whole covers many areas of study, such as the unity of time and space, balance of ecosystem, symmetry, conservation of energy, parity conservation law, time reversal symmetry and Holographic universe theory.
There is a wonder why Chinese traditional medical practice could detect illness in different parts of body by only touching one’s ear. This kind of new research subject belongs to Law of Organic Whole.
By comparing these laws with Hegel’s Logic, it is not hard to see that the Yi-Classics is much broader and comprehensive in terms of generalization.
What are the three laws of dialectics from Hegel’s Logic?
The law of the interpenetration of opposites;
The law of the transformation of quantitative changes into qualitative and vice versa;
The law of the negation of he negation.
The law of the negation of the negation is represented by the law of Cycle in Yi-Classics. The law of the transformation of quantitative into qualitative belongs to the law of the interpenetration of Yin and Yang, as quantitative and qualitative are opposites in nature. It can be concluded that our ancestor has summarized the entire laws of the universe in the Yi-classics.
No matter how far the research has progressed, the modern scientific research has not escaped the four fundamental laws in Yi-classics.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is very influential in modern philosophy and well known in the world, however his work is only covering some parts in the Yi-classics.
Do you still have any doubt that the laws of the universe is in the Yi-Classics?
Neither the worldwide scientists nor us would be able to deny these facts, as their research has not gone beyond the four fundamental laws in Yi-classics.
The DNA has 64 combinations of genetic code coincide with the Hexagram arrangement.
The elements of periodic table can be derived from the model of trigram.
As the science research further into the basic laws of universe, it continues to uncover evidence that the four fundamental laws are governing everything of Universe.
5. Yi-Classics and Science
Study of Yi has reached areas beyond science.
I will only cover five main points on about this.
The study of Yi focuses on the laws, science focus on the techniques. Science has many achievements in technologies and techniques, however, there are many researches and development that are not considered based on impacts on the general laws. This has resulted many issues in our society, such as pollutions, because Scientists have not mastered the general laws before they thrive into their research and development.
Our traditional Chinese medical practice has emphasized the system of organic whole, while western medicine has only focus on partially effectual results, which lead to many side effects.
I would like to share a viewpoint with everyone: The study of Yi reaches beyond science; however, it can be proved by science.
As you see, science has led us to replace nature with man-made structures. However, the study of Yi focus on ingenious way to co-exist with nature. It is well known that our Dujiangyan Irrigation project is ingenious and sustainable with nature. None of the western hydro projects could have matched with it. Dujiangyan Irrigation system has been used for over 2000 years, while western hydro structures probably last over 100 years at maximum.
This clearly shows that our ancestor’s wisdom in Yi has mastered the law of nature, while the science is only a temporary period.
From another perspective, the scientific technology is pursuing maximization of profitability, while the study of Yi is pursuing the harmonious unity of nature and mankind.
6. Gua, the symbolic group of Yi
Gua (Symbolic Group) is one of the seven form of study in Yi-Classics. However, Chinese scholars only focus on five areas since Confucius’s time, and never mention the symbolic group.
What is Gua?
Aye, you immediately respond to fortune telling.
If this is how you think of Gua, it would be a shame to our ancestors.
How has it become a notion of superstition? How wrong it is！
However, your answer is still better than some newspapers and magazines. Someone even uses Gua to stand for gossip news. It causes me heart attack when I hear this. What a shame to our ancestors.
Why have we ruined our ancestor’s wisdom to such a cheap state?
Joseph Needham （Needham 1959）mentioned in his Science and Civilisation in China, that calculus was first invented by China. However, as you see nowadays, many Chinese scholars have surrendered that it was invested in the West.
What is Gua? The English translation is way more accurate than modern Chinese definition.
The translation on Eight Gua is called Trigram. What is Trigram? Trigram is a figure made up of three whole or broken lines. The accurate definition is that the 8 Permutation of combinations of three randomly chosen lines out of two different lines (Yin and Yang). This is trigram.
What is Sixty-Four Gua? In English, it is called hexagram.
What is the meaning of Hexagram? It is the 64 Permutations of combinations of six randomly chosen lines out of two different line (Yin and Yang)
As you see, the English translation is more scientific than modern Chinese way in Chinese. I have gone through many Chinese dictionaries, and never be able to find any definition like this, not even in Taiwan, Hong Kong or Singapore.
Don’t you think this is a tragedy?
Therefore, it is my deepest regret to see our Chinese nation has deviated from the truth. We cannot be lost any further, and we are obligated to preserve this precious heritage from our ancestors. The West has done much better than us!
However, these translations are not yet scientifically accurate.
What is the most accurate definition?
It was given by the great philosopher, mathematician, originator of calculus, a remarkable logician three hundred years ago. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He said the Yi Gua is a unique way to represent writings, maths, abstracts and reasoning.
This is the most accurate definition I have ever seen. What a wonder!
The definition has incorporated four ways of expressions: language, mathematics, abstract thinking and reasoning
As you see, Leibniz is very admirable for his works as he is a great sage. In Europe, he is regarded as the last universal genius, and one of most important founders of modern science. He has great respect on the YI-Classics, and he said the Yi of Fuxi was the oldest milestone of our science on the universe, and Fuxi discovered the binary system before him.
As you all know, Leibniz built the foundation of computing. He invented binary system 0 and 1 and he is regarded as the father of computer science. However, he said the binary system was discovered by Fuxi 4600 years ago in Yi, and he had rediscovered it with influence from it.
It is indeed he said this but was shunned by many western scholars and thought he was insane. How could he attribute such a great discover to Chinese?
He said this is a scientist’s virtue and he had to admit the truth. Nevertheless, some Chinese scholars have succumbed to the standpoint that binary system does not belong to Chinese history, and it has nothing to do with trigram. This is advocated by many scholars in mainland China.
Nowadays, many who want to publish books about Leibniz will avoid including his credits on Chinese binary system, especially the western scholars.
How dare I say about Leibniz’ statement? I have read his personal correspondence in German and saved a copy of his letter with this statement. I have kept this evidence in case this fact is veiled by many others!
I suggest every Chinese soul with good faith should remember this definition, this is the most accurate statement for Yi Gua.
However, it will require a great deal of effort to fully understand this definition. We are still struggling to understand how our language was created. In fact, our writings came from the symbolic groups of Yi. I will touch on this later.
Mathematics is undoubtedly part of Yi. There is a Taiwanese scientist (Yijia Shen 1978), who states that Yi has included all the theorems of advanced mathematic. Yi does not only include one of the math theories like the western style, it includes many theories. It’s the ultimate form of symbolic system.
As a recap, I have mentioned Yi math has contained the theories and definitions, which can be seen in achievement by WenJun Wu for his Mathematics Mechanization.
Therefore, I am expecting everyone at minimum regards Gua as Trigram or Hexagram, it would be very noble of you if you can regard it at same level of Leibniz.
7. The scientific definition of Gua
Another recap, Leibniz as the greatest logician had provided a most comprehensive and objective definition on Yi Gua. He also made one statement about why he could deduce that Chinese invented binary system 4600 years ago. According to his logical deduction, a progression of abstracting thinking from arithmetic to philosophy would require thousands of years. In bronze age, Chinese had already utilized Yi at philosophical level.
I will show everyone that Chinese uses two basic symbols to represent trigram which is already at philosophical level. It is no longer about representing numbers. It is abstract thinking in Philosophy, which is based on the symbols of Yin-Yang.
Leibniz said, there must be early form of Gua which was used for numeral groups. From counting numbers to Philosophy, it is impossible to advance in less than several thousand years.
You can understand from this analogy: The law of gravitation was sensed by people three thousand years ago. King Wen said, “All things fall”. However, a mathematical representation of gravitation was invented by Newton.
Leibniz also said, if Chinese can use these abstract symbols to represent their philosophy, they must have used binary symbols four thousand years ago.
Don’t you think his statement is very plausible and accurate?
Nonetheless, many Chinese fellows still believe Yi-Classics is from Heaven like a miracle or extra-terrestrial. This is an immense shame. I will talk about this later.
8. The perfect symbolic system of all time
The Sixty-Four Hexagram is a perfect symbolic system, which was stated by a famous German symbologist (Semiotic,1991,1-2）He said there is nothing more advanced than this system. It has included every symbolic system, including physics, chemistry, biology, none will not be covered by this system with endless manipulation. I will not elaborate any more as there are so many books about this.
9. The model of universe
As I have touched on the topic earlier, the sixty-four-hexagram system is a model of the universe which manifests any forms and structures. Therefore, I conclude that Yi-Classics generalizes the laws of the universe.
Without mentioning its documentation, just look at the system of Gua, you would see it is representing basic forms of motion of the universe. This is because, the system of Gua has created models representing motion of celestial bodies. Chinese astronomer Cansheng Zhu discovered that the Sixty-Four Hexagram system matches solar system and lunar movement. The periodic movement of earth, sun and moon are represented by the system.
Another recap, The DNA arrangement also matches the representation of the sixty-four-hexagram system.
From tiny particles like molecules to the whole universe, it can represent all of it.
Don’t you think it is a perfect system? It is a miracle.
I have completed the introduction on Yi Gua. Its importance has been ignored by many scholars since Han Dynasty. I will not repeat again.
10. Documentation of Yi
Let’s talk about documentation. The documentation includes the name, judgment and line statements of each hexagram in Yi-Classics (the Book of Changes). Chinese people have been confused by scholars since Confucius’ time.
Confucius is a great sage and a great teacher. However, he did not fully understand the Yi-Classics, since he interprets the texts himself.
This is not bullshit, this is proven by much evidence and years of research.
What is the documentation?
Documentation consists of names of Hexagram, Judgement and Line statements which were written in oracle-bone and bronze inscriptions.
Confucius would not understand these characters since the time had elapsed 500 years. The Yi of Zhou was completed three thousand years ago. There were only oracle-bone inscriptions and bronze inscriptions at that time. There were no bamboo slips known by him created at that time. Confucius said that when he was about fifty-year-old, he had read Yi-Classics many times and broke the bamboo slips at least three times. This proves that he had not seen oracle-bone inscriptions. Therefore, this point is proven by evidence.
11. Yi-Classics was written on Oracle-bones and Bronze inscriptions
The Yi-classics was written on bones and bronze inscriptions. If you don’t understand oracle script, it is impossible for you to fully understand it.
Confucius was able to interpret it partially, but not all correct. In article the Three People in Company that I shared with you; the author has pointed out that Confucius was incorrect on Hexagram 41. I will tell where he was wrong later. Therefore, we must notice the important characteristics of Yi-Classics, that the book was written in oracle and bronze inscriptions. If you don’t understand these, it is a braggart of you to say you understand Yi.
Why is it written in oracle-bone inscriptions? It was done in the way that very few people could read it and it was only for those who genuinely knew the inscriptions.
In modern age, some oracle researchers always start from comparing the shapes of pictographs. How it is written now versus how was written in the past to conclude what character it is. This methodology has been adopted by many researchers, including Moruo Guo. It would apply to characters created for objects that you can see, like the Sun, the Moon and the objects like these. However, it does not apply to characters created for abstract meaning, like season, time, Winter solstice, and Summer solstice. These characters with abstract meaning are abundant in Yi-Classics. Without reference to objects, how would you able to discern properly? It will not be a correct guestimate, and there are many labeled wrong.
An example is Shuowenjiazi (Chinese Dictionary written in early 2nd Century). It has many wrong characters recorded. However, there are many people who interpret Yi-classics with reference to this dictionary. Since some of the definitions are wrong, it results wrong interpretation.
This is the important feature of Yi-Classics, which is written in oracle-bone inscriptions and bronze inscription.
12. Yi-Classics was authored by group of leaders from Zhou Dynasty
The second important feature is that Yi-Classics was written by a group of scholars led by King Wen and his son Gong Zhou. This is proven with evidence. I have systematically proven this fact in Origin of Chinese Science and Civilization second volume book IV. It was written by the group of Zhou wise scholars not others.
How was it done? They wrote many books other than Yi-Classics including, ZhouBi (Maths in Zhou Dynasty), ZhouShu (Book of Zhou History), YiZhouShu (The Lost Books of Zhou), ZhouLi ( The Zhou Rituals)
I can prove that many contents of Yi-Classic were abstracts from these books. The abstract of some article was used for judgment and line statements for the relevant hexagram. This is where the judgments and line statements came from.
Why was it done this way? It was purposed to educate the royal family members so that they could master the world for ten thousand years. They had explicitly announced that the Yi-Classics was to educate the Zhou Royalty family members to understand the Cosmic Way so that the Zhou family would rule the world forever. This was written in their book. Therefore, the book of changes was not written for everyone, it was for Zhou’s royal family to know the truth of Universe so that their sovereignty can last forever.
There is indeed truth in Yi-Classic, the truth of Universe.
They believed this treasure could not be passed on to someone outside their family. If it was passed to wrong hand, their sovereignty would be in peril. They only intended on their own descendants.
How did it get spread out? Later, Zhou Dynasty became corrupt and declined. Their sovereignty was seized by warlords of different states. At that time, the secretary of Zhou’s family passed this book to their landlord relatives. For example, the state of Lu, which was the descendent of Gong Zhou. They possessed this book and spread it out.
Why are there many famous scholars include Confucius originated from the Province of ShanDong? It is because they had acquired the knowledge of Yi-Classics and the book was available in that region. Another state is Chu, the royal family in Chu was very close to the royal family of Zhou. Therefore, they could acquire a lot of precious knowledge. These two regions have preserved many things from Yi of Zhou.
Therefore, my recommendation is that do not study Yi-Classics based on scholars after Han Dynasty advocating divination. This is all garbage. They don’t understand Yi at all. The book that you must read is the books written in Zhou Dynasty. Indeed, I have discovered many similarities between Yi-Classics and books of Zhou.
The books of Zhou were also written in oracle and bronze inscriptions; therefore, it is technically difficult to translate and interpret. Especially Yizhoushu (the Lost Books of Zhou), it contains King Wen’ articles. It was lost then rediscovered.
There are many important inscriptions discovered in antique market, one is a testament that King Wen wrote to his oldest son. Such critical documentation has been lost for many years! The bamboos slips were recently discovered in antique market and collected by Tsinghua University. The name of this testament is called Boaxun. This document is very important for Yi-study and it covers the Law of Yin-Yang.
It explains the law of Yin-Yang that the Yin and Yang are separate extremities and unified in-between. This is an important record. If Confucius had not seen it, how would he know? Therefore, it is not completely his fault when he was wrong at times.
If you wish to study I-Ching in a correct way, and fully understand the texts, please read the following books. Zhoubi (Mathematics), Zhoushu (History of Zhou Dynaysty), Yizhoushu (the lost book of Zhou History), and Zhouli (Zhou Rituals). Especially the lost book of Zhou History, it is very important. I do not recommend you search this book online as it is not authentic, and it is messed up. You need to find the version published by The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Why do I say so? It is because this version is edited by Jao Tsung-I (2018). He was a rigorous scholar and had done it right.
This is my recommendation: read these books to understand Yi-Classics correctly.
13. Yi-Classics was exclusive for royal family of Zhou
Yi-Classics was the classic study material for Zhou’s royal family. It is not the book of divination as promoted by Bangu and Zhuxi three thousand years ago. Their concept is wrong and have no support of evidence. A scholar needs to prove what he claims. There is no proof, and even their logic is wrong.
The Yi-classics has nothing to do with supernatural means, it is about calculation and measuring. How can it be book of divination? This is nonsense and illogical. However, this illogical statement has been passed on for two thousand years. Don’t you think this is the most ridiculous thing in the world? However, this has been ongoing for thousand years without correction. Especially, the idea of divination has become burgeoning and prevalent in mainstream study. This is unimaginably absurd. It is a shame to see those who have achieved higher education are obsessed with divination in mainstream study. It is a tragedy and superstitious without proof.
This concept of divination was initiated by Bangu (Han Dynasty 92AD), but he did not seriously confirm it. He said, “it might be a book of divination”. Later, the scholar Zhuxi confirmed it as “Yi-classics is originally a book of divination” Where did the “originally” come from? What proof was it based on? He had promoted this idea many times.
Since then, he totally changed people’s perception on Yi-classics, and Chinese civilization begun to decline. This is a hard lesson learnt. If we are not clear on this concept, it is tough to revitalize Chinese tradition.
14. Two Examples: Hexagram 13 Fellowship with Men, Hexagram 41 Decrease
I will use two hexagrams as examples to prove my points. However, I don’t have time to explain the entire hexagram. I will only touch on few line statements.
Let’s look at Hexagram 13 Fellowship with Tong Men. The hexagram statement has “Fellowship with men in the wilderness “.
If you don’t read the Book of Zhou, you will not understand this statement completely
“Fellowship with men in the wilderness” is about King Wu (Son of King Wen) gathered many armies at Muye.
Everyone knows Muye? Muye is near the suburbs of the capital of Shang Dynasty. The wilderness means it is outside the suburbs.
He gathered 800 tribes which are about 800 armies, total 50,000 soldiers united and gathered at Muye. They overthrew Shan Dynasty. There was nothing to regret, it was a great deed. Therefore, it states “Fellowship with men in the wilderness, success”. It is simple if you understand the Book of Zhou History. Nothing difficult.
Let us look at Hexagam 41 Decrease which is an example that Confucius made a mistake.
The nine at the beginning says, “Going quickly when a sacrifice is doing, is without blame.”
How did Confucius explain? He says, “Going quickly when one’s tasks are finished, then you never go astray.” In fact, he did not explain this line at all since he didn’t understand.
To understand statement, you need to know about the oracle-bone inscriptions.
The first character of the statement has been changed to Si “巳”. In Confucius’ time, this character “巳” “which represented sacrifice had changed to this form “祀”, it meant sacrifice in oracle-bone inscriptions. If you understand this oracle, then you will immediately know this about sacrifice. The statement means the proceeding of sacrifice needs to be done quickly, and there is no blame because of this.
This is because King Wen and Gong Zhou were against Shang’s squander at worship sacrifice. It wasted lots of resources. In Shang Dynasty, every worship sacrifice would cause slaughter of five hundred slaves and hundreds of cattle, it lasted three days. Therefore, King Wen ordered the worship sacrifice to be done quickly and there was no punishment for it.
At that time, people were afraid of showing disrespect to ancestors and God and burdened to ensure the worship sacrifice was done sufficiently. However, King Wen encouraged people to be frugal on the spending at worships and no longer taking excessive time and resource.
This is the original meaning of the statement but was translated wrong by Confucius. The main reason is that he didn’t fully understand the evolution of characters and its transformation from oracle to bamboo slip. He didn’t understand this character is because people added another symbol representing God beside it to represent worship. It is no doubt nobody was able to see the meaning of this word which is not about “tasks finished” it means “Worship sacrifice”
The nine in the second-place states “Perseverance furthers. To undertake something brings misfortune. Without decreasing oneself, one can bring increase to others.” This statement means to warn people who pursue profit with cheating. It suggests this kind of people will be in danger if continues. It is not the correct way to pursue success without efforts. Every businessman does not have faith in cheating for profit. However, there are many cunning and inferior men desire to achieve great success using shortcuts or little effort.
This line is telling people not to continue with this course of action, or it will be misfortunate in the future.
The following statement for six in the third place regarding “three people journey together” is an elaborated answer to previous line. It explains why it will bring misfortune if one continues to cheat for profit, it is because the hexagram 41 decrease and hexagram 42 increase are opposites in unity.
If you want to have gain, you need to pay. When one’s due is paid, then what is owed will be gained back. It is paradoxical.
This is the meaning in third line “three people journey together”. When you have three people in journey together, why will there be loss of one? It is because when things are growing greatly in quantity, they will have tendency to polarise. When three are together, the group will polarize and remove one which does not fall on either side. Anything will start to polarize when their quantity is abundant. Don’t you think so?
Then why the line also states, “When one man in journey alone, he finds a companion.”? It is because singularity will have tendency to break away from solitary. Therefore, a companion will be found. This is the one of the fundamental laws that I have mentioned before.
The hexagram explains why one cannot cheat for gain, because gain and loss are opposite in unity. It is impossible to have one sided gain. If there is any, it will be temporary, and you will eventually pay the dues back or there will be misfortune awaiting you. This is the dialectic of decrease and Increase.
Every hexagram of Yi-classics is addressing the opposites of Yin and Yang.
It is like what Zhuangzi (BC 286) said, if you don’t understand the relationship of Yin and Yang, you will not be able to understand Yi of Zhou. Therefore, it is the dialectic of organic whole.
Laozi and Confucius had gained the dialectic understanding from study of Yi-Classics.
Every hexagram contains meaning of opposites of Yin and Yang. The Hexagram Decrease and Increase are opposite in unity, neither of the two can exist alone. They are complementing each other and transforming from one to the other. They are intrinsically dialectical.
I have simplified the content as we don’t have enough time to further in detail.
然后就是神农，神农易学就是搞出了药、食同源，就是把药物和食物都搞齐了， 这是个神农伟大的贡献。再一个呢，是医和易，中医就是从他开始的，这现在有确切的考古学依据，所以他的贡献就在这些方面。当然， 他还进一步发展了这个伏羲的历法，把伏羲的阳历搞成阴阳合历，也是他的贡献。他而且把南方和北方联系在一起了，他把这个南方的神农炎帝部落带到西北渭水地区建立了炎帝部落联盟，所以当时这个神农也是起了很大作用。
好，再来就讲数字卦，为什么我刚才讲：就是在这个易经产生之前，就是在这个连山易产生之前，我们这个易学都是用卦表示的。这个卦呢，主要就是数字卦。什么是数字卦，我首先把这个说明，它是什么？，我们刚才不是讲了么，这个八卦，trigram , hexagram, 它都是一种组合，你看，两种符号任取三个排列组合就成八卦，都是把这两种符号组合起来。他组合的这个符号的方式，就是用这个阴和阳这两种符号，就是把偶数（阴爻），奇数（阳爻）组合起来，因为我们祖先搞的组合是在成熟文字出现之前的，都是用数字表示出来的组合,它的这个数字，我刚才就是写了，是中国最早的数字，你看，我们中国原来的古数字，一（1）， 二（2），三（3），亖（4），Ⅹ（5），∧（6），ナ（7），八（8）， ∨（9）， I（10）。这个数字你看啊，进化到我们现代这个数字前就是这个“∨（九）”字变了。为什么，我刚才讲了，这个∨，因为是大禹的名字，要把当时搞成这个九字，就好像有损大禹的声誉。所以把∨改成这个九字了。所以这九是从夏代才开始改的。在夏代之前都是这个∨（九）字。你看呢，这个∧（六）和这个∨（九）字恰好是相反的。这个是很重要的一点。大家如果要是把这个搞懂了，就好懂甲骨文了。
因为甲骨文很多字啊就是靠这些数字拼成的。所以中国最古老的数字卦，都是由这几个数字组成的。这几个数字当然他有个进化的过程，他不是说开始就这样的。大家就是要这样回答这个问题，什么是数字卦呢 ，就是数字的组合就叫数字卦。就叫做numeral group, 就是用英文来说。我们这个符号卦是什么呢，就是阴阳符号组成的卦就叫做符号卦。
那个时候呢也出现了六个符号的。你看这个，这个是六个符号的，这个三（三），X（五），X（五），X（五），XL（六），X（五）。大家一定会很奇惊，他为什么搞这么一个XI和罗马数字是一样的。这个是很奇怪的事情。就是说我们祖先开始已经 有罗马数字的观念了。他们当时想走这条路：就是在这个五进制内，在五以后还增加怎么办？它就把他加一横XI，就代表6了。现在罗马数字现在也是这样的。把V（五）呢加一条（I）就是六了。那这就表明当时我们祖先数学头脑已经很发达了。（台下问：“那个不是九么”。啊？）你说的那个是∧（六），与那个∨是倒着的。他们那个时候哪里有六啊？我正要说你这个问题，他那个时候还没有∧(六)，他们就只好用五加一（XI）等于六，当时这个六字还没出现呢。（台下说：“还没反过来”） 不是还没反过来，这个你不要搞错了。哪里是反过来呢？这个是五进制系统。
那个时候在伏羲时代还没有六字，我不是讲了么，这是逐渐发展起来的。在伏羲时代的时候，它全部的卦都是五进制的。它的最大数字就是五。到五字以后它就又要变了。所以这就是伏羲卦的特点，为什么它叫伏羲卦呢？它就是五进制数字卦系统。为什么莱布尼茨的判断是对的? 他说那个时候不可能有哲学的抽象，它就只能有数字。再一个，为什么说伏羲不是最早的卦呢？就是说他之前一定还有一和二的卦。他这个已经是九千年的了，所以说在一万年以前那个时候卦只有一和二这两个字。伏羲那个时候呢，易经已发展一步了，已经把数字扩展到五了。所以，他那时可以用五个数字来表示这些卦了，所以说他表达的数字更多。所以大家一定要有这个概念，这个数字是逐步发展起来的，逐步的进化的。最早的是就两个数字：一和二， 后来在伏羲时代才发展到五个数字：一，二，三，亖，X。所以说我们老祖宗在那个时候易经有罗马数字的概念了，就是X（五）再加一个就变成六了。那个时候是这么的造字啊。还没有这个∧（六）字。
好，这个数字卦已经发展到七千多年了。你看这个非常漂亮，大家看看知道这个是什么呢。它这个是把两个X字组合了：这个X字，和这个X字，两个交叉起来的。组成的一个图案。大家看到没有？（下面说：这些图案都是出土文物了？）对，都是出土文物，这是七千年前遗址的出土文物。（下面问：“那个数字卦比较简单的是113，现在我们能知道什么意思么？”） 它的意思你当然可以知道，我过一会再讲当时这个意思怎么表达的：就是它必须和具体的对象结合起来。不能离开具体载体, 它的每一个字啊，他都有特定部位的。那些所有的氏族都是统一用的，我待一会讲。你看他那个时候的数字组合是很随便的。不像我们现在只有三个gram的，它这个是两个字的组合，你看两个X（五）就是个卦。他们是完全根据自己需要来组合数字，不受任何限制，那时候的卦，需要两个时候的就两个，需要三个的时候就三个。甚至有的时候是一个。(下面说：“我觉得是四个五不是两个五， 他这个是可以延申的么？我我个人认为不可以这么牵强” ) 那要看它们为什么统一成这样？
这个图案不就是有了另一个么。要看他的连贯性。这个考古啊，最怕的就是看见一个什么就马上产生联想。（下面问：请问一下这个是什么时候出土的文物啊？） 这个是7千年前的。（下面问：“是哪个地方”），这个是合肥附近的。(下面问：“合肥什么地方？我就是合肥的” )合肥附近蚌埠的双墩遗址。 (下面问：“这个是石头还是青铜器？”), 那个时候只能是陶器，这个图案是刻画在陶罐底部的。 (下面问：“这个是龙山的文物么？”) 龙山那个是很晚的时代了，这个文物的制作，还是伏羲时代遗留下的事情。所以，我就怕把这个东西混到一起，看到一个东西就马上猜想。你要联系这些事物去看。这些符号当时人家是这么用的。它们这个是有继承性的。这个是六千五百年前的，这个是七千年前的。就说明这些符号，几百年甚至几千年间还一直在用。
再来你看，这个呢，这个是五千六百年前的。这个是安徽的。(下面问？这个也是卦么？)你看。 你怎么去看这个卦? 他全部是用这个杠杠来表示。你看这是“二二三”，他这个就有意思了。他们为什么要用这个来表示呢？就是他们这个氏族专门用这个二二三来表示什么呢? 就是两个阴，一个阳。两个阴一个阳是个什么卦？震卦？两个阴一个阳，或者是艮卦。对，艮卦。这个艮卦是表示什么呢？艮卦，你要看哪个八卦系统。当时这个八卦系统，用的是伏羲卦系统。你看他这个时代是伏羲卦的时代，所以,它是先天八卦。先天八卦的艮卦是什么节气。先天八卦的这个艮卦是（下面说：“是不是山啊？”， 它是山的意思）但是它在这里是用来掌握时间的，是掌握节气的。所以它这个是什么呢，是在冬至之前的节气，秋分之后的。它这个是表示立冬的，这表示这人是掌握立冬的。
你看这个两个玉人看来是一样的, 其实这个人是掌握另外一个节气的，二二一，所以,这就可以知道它的意思了。那个卦的节气对他们很重要，所以就作成这样的玉人，这些是用玉石雕成的啊。这些玉石人是供起来的。那时他们是已经成为后人崇拜的祖先了，后人们是要祭拜他们。所以这些人的事是很重要的，他们是掌管节气的。所以,这证明那个时候分工已经很系统了。我们还没有把所有玉人像拿出来，它们一共有八个像。这个八个每一个人都掌握着一个节气。就是一年有八节。每一个人掌握一个节气，然后还有一个总头子，他是管冬至、管夏至，其他人各管一个节气。搞什么呢，搞测定，他是主要用什么方法来测定？，就是测量日光投影，就是根据日光投影的长度来测定。冬至当然是最长的，夏至是最短的。它们都有标定的尺码，一到其尺码他就知道这个是什么节气。所以他们就专门负责每天的日影测量, 因为这个是决定他们一年有没有饭吃的大问题。他们都把这个当成头顶要务。所以，这样的人享有特殊的待遇，其作用很重要的。我这部书系统地分析了这个遗址，它是在安徽的含山凌家滩，就是凌家滩遗址。这里个遗址当时已经是一个很大的方国了，他们这些人是这个方国里的干部。他们共有的这个部落比较大，当时已经有了八个氏族，他们八个氏族的祖先的坟墓都埋在一起，现在都挖开了。这个遗址很值得研究：当时的方国是怎么运行的？他们是怎么产生他们的领袖的？还一个是专门管测向的。他们当时有首领，总首领是管时间的。他们的数字卦都是伏羲卦。
好，这个卦就开始神农卦了，神农的数字卦是从什么时候开始？是8千年前，你看这个石棒，因为这个是太长，本应该竖起来看。他这个数字卦是什么？，是IXI(十五十)，它是这三个数字组成的这么个卦。因为它竖着太长了，我只好把它横着成这样，它这个是个石头棒子。上面一个穿孔。你说在8千年的时候，用石头搞出来，这几多难啊。当时他用这个石棒来测向的。他怎么测向呢？ 他就是把这个穿个孔里就插一个竹签，然后就看它的投影，投影到那个作了记号的中间。他就知道这方向是正东还是正西，然后根据东西来确定南北。所以这个石棒对他们氏族是非常重要的，因为他们要找到方向就非要靠这个东西不可。所以，他必须要用卦来表示方向。这个卦的意思就因此可以知道了，它这个卦是表示东西向。以后，这个卦用得很广泛的，以后到周朝都在用这个符号来表示东西向了。你不懂得这个卦，你就看不出来这个意思。（下面说：“等一下，我要确定一下时间”这个神农卦是8千年前，就是公元前6前年前，那个伏羲卦是距今9千年前是么？9千年前，也就是公元前7千年前。）你看这个字，这个也是要这么看的，这个是在跨湖桥遗址。 那个是在湖南，湖南的彭头山遗址。彭头山遗址是八千年前的。他们当时已经成为了一个很大的聚落群。这个是首领氏族的手里才有。你看这个石棒子很不简单。那个时候把它搞出来是很不容易的。因为这个石头棒对他们太重要了。
这个卦是在什么地方发现的呢？这个是在江苏发现的，你看这两个是M一样的符号——这两个∧∧（六）字。这个两个六字∧∧,就是神农炎帝联盟盟号, 神农氏族就是用这个为族号。为什么大家后来就认为神农是火（赤）、山（岳）帝，你看这是最早的“火”字和“山”字。因为神农氏是发现刀耕火种的，这就是从他开始的；开发山区 也是从神农开始。你看这边一个五字，这个一字，这个是他氏族的代号。这个是代表其氏族的，神农氏族的。
所以，这些表明各个时代的卦的不同，这样就就可看看它们出现在什么时代。为什么我敢把这个中国的三皇五帝基本搞清楚呢？就是因为我们掌握了他们各时代的数字卦材料。为什么连司马迁都搞不出来呢，司马迁的《史记》只写到五帝，他无法写三皇。因为他没有资料，但是我们有这些大家都可以看到的资料来搞清楚，我们有三皇的资料。因为我们有各个不同时代的数字卦, 而且我可以把它们年代断出来。伏羲是距今9000年至7500年，神农是从距今7500年到6000年，黄帝是从6000年到4600年。你看这不是搞清楚了么。我这不是乱搞，因为我有根据——数字卦，即他们的文字可以证明。如果把他们留下的数字卦系统梳理就可把他们所有活动的地点、时间搞一清二楚，所以这样一来，我们的研究的根据还真不少。就像刚才讲的那些数字卦一样, 就是把这些卦中的每一个数字卦还原为当时它们代表的意思都搞清楚。我确实还没有这么多时间。这些问题就要留给大家了。
就是这个卦象文字。你看这些就是卦象文字。所谓卦象文字，就是说你这个有物可象，你看太阳，他是用这个“日“来表示。 再来呢，眼睛，他是用”目“来表示。这个呢？发现这个是个“工”字，“工”字呢是后来成象形文字，原本就是这个卦象文字。就是说当时凡是在是中层一级的氏族领导都是用这个来表示。然后这个符号“コ“用这个来表示祖先的。你看甲骨文里面就用这个来代表祖先了。这个是9000年前的啊。这个也是贾湖的，同一个遗址出现的。贾湖在什么地方呢? 在河南省舞阳县贾湖遗址，这是我们中国最宝贵的遗址之一。伏羲的材料可以从那里来。这些字就是从那里来的。这些字一直保存到甲骨文了，你看目字也是这样，工字也是这样，不是我们现在的工人，就是那时臣工，当臣子的。甲骨文讲“臣工”就是这个“工”字。这个“コ”是代表的祖先的，
这个是什么呢?这个是蚯蚓，代表播种期的符号。开始它也从贾湖遗址出土的，可我没有把它的图像列出来。这个是在陶器底部上的图案，这个是在湖北出土的, 就是在三峡地区出土的, 这个是代表播种期的，掌握播种期也是很重要的，正因这样，后来为什么有龙啊，龙面人身，蛇面人身？就从这个符号来的。
就是说它是代表我们所知的蚯蚓，所以，这个符号就是代表蚯蚓的， 只要看到蚯蚓出来了，播种的这个时间就到了。因为蚯蚓出来的这个时间对于决定播种是很重要的，这就是我们所说的惊蛰，只要惊蛰节气一到就可看到冬眠动物出来了, 我们的播种期就到了。一年的播种期正确不正确，决定那年有没有收成，所以它是很重要的标志，很重要的时间标志。在当时是很重要的，所以特别要记下来。
Yi-Classics (Book of Changes) in Prehistory
15. What is Yi-Lore?
I have talked about Yi-Classics after Bronze age. Now I will talk about Yi-Classics in Prehistory. Yi in prehistory existed in Yi-lore. People may wonder what Yi-lore is and the relationship between Yi-Classics and Yi-lore. Yi-lore is the study of the universe by using the Yi symbolic group language and pictographs.
I have made this definition different from other scholars. They have referred Yi-lore as study of Yi-classics, which is very narrow minded. Study and research which conducted by using Yi symbolic groups, especially by the numeral groups representing language and pictographs in the prehistory time, are all considered as part of Yi-lore. I hope everyone understand this definition on Yi-lore.
What is the difference between Yi-lore and Yi-Classics? Yi-Classics is the conclusive summary of Yi-lore. Many scholars including the Taiwanese scholar Nan HuaiJin (2012 AD) have wondered why the Book of Changes is highly developed and advanced in philosophy since its time. This is because Yi-classics had been developed from Yi-lore for seven thousand years. This is no wonder why.
It worth the time for every modern scholar to study into Yi-lore. The seven thousand years of evolution has made the Book of Changes master the truth of humanity and the universe. This means about 10,000 years ago, the Gua and Yi-lore existed.
16. Yi of Fuxi
The earliest form of Yi-lore is Yi of Fuxi. The feature of Yi of Fuxi is his concept on Trigram. Fuxi’s concept on Yin and Yang are different from our modern understanding. In his time, the Yin and Yang were representing odd number and even number. He didn’t have advanced philosophy of Yin and Yang. He used single odd number to represent Yang, and even number to represent Yin.
Fuxi then created the early form of trigram. The functionality of trigrams was to label directions since there was no object to draw for a pictograph meaning direction. He invented ideograms to represent the directions. It was very critical to record directions at that time. People went for hunting and they needed route of direction to find home. Therefore, a tool and a way must be invented for recognizing and record directions.
Another purpose of trigram was to identify and record Winter solstice and Summer solstice and solar terms. The trigrams were represented in numeral groups.
Fuxi’s greatest contribution is that he started to use the system of trigram and invented techniques of identifying directions and time.
Additionally, he invented Kiln making pottery technology.
He also invented net to capture animals and fish alive so that we were able to domesticate animals farming. His great contributions have been revered for thousands of years.
17. Yi-lore of Shennong
Next to Fuxi is Shennong, who discovered sources of natural medicine and agricultural food. This is one of his great contributions. he initiated the integration of Chinese traditional medicine into Yi-lore, which can proven by archaeological findings.
Shennong further developed Fuxi’s calendar and combined solar and lunar calendars. He also united southern and northern tribes, and brought Emperor Yan’s tribes from south to Weishui, northwestern part of China. He had contributed a lot in the union of tribes.
18. Yi of Huangdi
Another prominent leader is Yellow Emperor who invented Yi of Huangdi, he mainly focused on promoting and inhibiting system of the five phases.
Yi of Fuxi focuses on law of Yin-Yang. Yi of Huangdi established a calendric system based on cycle of five phases
Why does China have both combined systems of Yin-Yang and Five phases built in the culture for several thousands of years? these two systems were not accommodating each other at that time. There were wars because of this conflict of their calendar systems.
Since Fuxi’s descendants were from the eastern part of China, and Yellow Emperors’ followers were from the northwestern part of China, there were frequent wars and very atrocious fights among them. There were massive battlefields, and the great war with Chiyou, mainly due to the conflict of calendric systems adopted by each side.
The Yellow Emperor and his tribe adapted to calendar of Five phases, and the Shengnong tribe adapted to Solar and Lunar calendar. there was much disagreement between the two calendric systems. The two systems had been through thousand years of development to be united as Yin-Yang-Wuxing calendar system.
Hence, Yellow Emperor has made a great contribution to development of Yi-lores by introducing concept of five phases. This established the law of Cycle in Yi lore, which is an important part of Yi-classics. The Yin-Yang and the five phases were combined and formed a core part of Chinese organic whole philosophy system. Without these essential parts, the Yi-lores and Yi-classics would not exist.
Even though, everyone is very familiar that Yin-Yang and five phases are united concept, we need to know that it is outcome of long history of evolution and development. it was not like what it is today in the beginning. The great wisdom of our ancestors came from perseverance in pursuing the truth, struggles and conflict of ideologies established and overturned repeatedly for thousands of years. This eventually resulted in discovery of the truth. it is a rare treasure and it was attained by our Chinese ancestors.
19. Numeral Gua or Numeral Group.
I have previously mentioned that before Yi of Lianshan and Yi-classic, Yi-lore was based on symbolic groups. These symbolic groups are mainly numeral groups. I will explain what numeral groups are.
As I previously explained, trigrams and hexagram are grouped combinations of two primary symbols. The combinations are based on Yin and Yang symbols which were represented as even number and odd number. Before the appearance of Chinese language characters, our ancestors were initially using groups of numeral symbols.
Earlier in this lecture, I wrote down the ancient form of numbers 一（1）， 二（2），三（3），亖（4），Ⅹ（5），∧（6），ナ（7），八（8）， ∨（9）， I（10）
This symbol “∨” representing nine has evolved to this character “九”. The main reason for changing the form is that this “V” was not a positive image to Emperor Yu’s reputation. As a result, the character was changed since Xia Dyansty. Before Xia Dynasty, number nine was represented by “V”.
20. Numeral Groups
As you see, the symbols representing six (∧) and nine (∨) are opposite in shape. This is important point to note.
If we understand this pattern, it would make easier to understand oracle-bone inscriptions. This is because, many oracle-bone inscriptions were pieced together with numeral symbols. Many ancient numeral groups were formed by these basic numbers. These basic numbers also had process of evolution and were not the same at the beginning.
This will answer the question what numeral groups are. Numeral groups were formed by grouping of numbers.
Also remember that, our symbolic Gua is formed of symbols of Yin and Yang.
21. Numeral Groups of Fuxi
Let us look at few examples. This is relic from nine thousand years ago and was discovered from Wuyang Jiahu archeological site from Henan. This Gua is obviously a primitive numeral symbol. This represents one and this represents three. The formation of one-one-three comprises two symbols of one and one symbol of three. These are the numeral symbols created in the time of Fuxi, therefore called Fuxi numeral Gua. This is discovered from Jiahu archeological site.
As the symbols were engraved on the arrow made of bone, these can be preserved until now. This example is not a character but portrayed in 3d drawing. For representation, this numeral Gua is one-one-three.
What does this Gua represent? One represents Yang, and three represents Yang as well, one-one-three means three line of Yang which is trigram of Qian as we know today.
Another example like this numeral Gua, it consists three symbols of five (×). This was made nine thousand years ago, very admirable for our ancestor. It also represents a trigram of Qian.
Although they are all representing Yang, why are they specific to different kinds of trigram for Qian? This is because they are representing different type of Yang things., which have common character of Yang. These two numeral Gua’s are trigram consisted of three symbols. There were also hexagrams consisting of six symbols at that time.
Take a look at this one: 三（three），X（five），X（five），X（five），XI (six), X（five）, Someone may wonder at the symbol of six which is similar to Roman numerals. This could indicate that our ancestor might start to have concept of Roman numerals. For hexadecimal system at that time, if there was a number more than five, it was represented with one more strike to become six.
This is very similar to Roman numeral V and VI. This shows that our ancestor already had very high intelligence on arithmetic
“Didn’t you mention that was nine? Eh?”
“The symbol of six and nine are opposite in shapes.”
There was not a symbol for six created at that time. They added one strike beside five to represent six.
“It was reversed at that time?”
There was no such thing to reverse, please not be confused, this is a quinary system. There was no character for six at that time, but after gradual evolution, to become a six.
In time of Fuxi, it was quinary system. The biggest number was five. The counting was changed after five. This is feature of Fuxi Gua which is quinary.
This indicates why Leibniz is correct on his assumption that there was no philosophy but numerals at that time. It also shows that Fuxi Gua was not the oldest form of Gua, there was a binary system before him. Since this was nine thousand years old, there must be binary system about 10,000 years ago.
Then when it came to time of Fuxi, the system of Yi had been progressed to quinaryl. There were more numerals for Fuxi to use for Gua representation.
We must be clear with this concept in which numeral system was developed and improved gradually and slowly over thousand of years. The earliest form only had one and two in binary system, and it got evolved to quinaryl in time of Fuxi. Then our ancestor started to have a concept like Roman numerals which was to add one strike beside five to become six. This is how language character was created at that time and there was no character for six yet.
Ok, this example of numeral Gua is seven thousand years old. It is a beautiful formation of two “X” intercepting each other. As you can see, this is very similar to the symbol on Israeli national flag.
“Are these unearthed cultural relics?”
Yes, there are seven thousand years old.
“The numeral group representing one-one-three, can we know what it means?”
Of course, I will explain the meaning of it. It is associated to specific thing or object which cannot be separated. Every character has a special part in it. There was commonality in what was used among tribes. I will touch on it later.
There were not limitation for the number of symbols in a group at that time, not like the trigrams we have today. It is a symbol of bigram just like this Gua made of two “X”. They created numeral groups based on what were needed with no specific restrictions. When two were needed a symbol of two was created. When three were needed, a symbol of three was created. Even sometimes, there were groups made of one numeral.
“It looks like four symbols of five to me, not two. Could they stretch like that? It looks very far-fetched.”
It depends whether there was a consistent pattern across other relics. This is another similar example which shows the consistency.
It is not a good practice to have immediate assumption and analogy in archaeology.
“How old was this relic?”
Seven thousand years old.
“Where was it found?”
Nearby HeFei in province of Anhui.
“Where in HeFei? It is my hometown.”
It is ShuangDun archaeological site in city of Bangbu near HeiFei city.
“Was it made of stone or bronze?”
It was made of pottery. Its picture is the bottom of a pot.
“Is this a relic from LongShan?”
No, it was too early for LongShan. This relic only belongs to delayed period of the time of Fuxi. Therefore, I am avoiding mixing up of different relics, and we should not make assumption based on untrained observation. This requires association with purpose of usage for these symbols on certain things.
There was inheritance on them. This is six-thousand-year-old, and that is seven-thousand-year-old. This suggests these numeral groups had been used over hundreds to thousand years.
Again, this relic is 5600 years old, and discovered in Province of Anhui.
“Is this still considered as a numeral Gua?”
This is how you should read this Gua: two-two-three. This is an interesting one. They used two even numbers “Two” and one odd number “three” to form a numeral group. What did they use to represent with two Yins and one Yang?
“Trigram of Zhen? Or is it trigram of Gen? “
Yes, it is trigram of Gen.
What this trigram represents depends on which trigram system it was in. It was in Fuxi Trigram system, which was representing a solar term.
“Does it represent mountain?”
It has a meaning of mountain, but it was used for a solar term in the system of Fuxi. This trigram of Gen represents a solar term after Autumn equinox and before Winter solstice. It means the beginning of winter, and this idol represents a man who managed it.
These two idols made of jade look alike but the other one was also managing a solar term, using numeral group of two-two-one. This is how we can deduce the meaning. The numeral groups (Gua) representing solar terms were very critical to them, therefore, these were made into jade statues and revered.
They were ancestors who managed critical solar terms therefore commemorated by their descendants. This also indicates that work was classified systematically at that time. I have not shown all these jade statues. There are eight in total representing eight solar terms. Every statue represents someone managing a solar term. There was also a grand master. One manages Summer Solstice; one manages Winter Solstice and the rest was managing other solar terms.
What were their jobs? They determined a solar term by measuring the sun-shadow length at a solar term with a gnomon and a gnomon shadow template.
The sun shadow length is longest at Winter Solstice, and it is the shortest at Summer Solstice. They had standard length to gauge. Once the shadow length matches the standard, the solar term will be determined. Their full-time job was measuring the shadow lengths. This was critical job at that time as it determined whether there was enough food supply their tribe for the year. Therefore, these people had special privileges for their important positions.
I have a systematic analysis on this site in my book. It is archaeological site of Linjiatan in province of Anhui. There was a huge united tribe at this site, and these people were important officials. When this site was uncovered, we found eight different tribes buried together. It worth a lot more research and study on how the united clans was run, how the leader was elected, especially for measuring. Their supreme leader was responsible for determining the Winter Solstice as the beginning of a year by measuring solar shadow lengths within the Fuxi system of trigram.
22. Numeral Groups of Shennong
This numeral Gua is from time of Shennong. When did numeral Gua of Shennong start? 7500 years ago.
This stone rod is supposed to be observed from top since it is long. It has a numeral Gua which is ten-five-ten(∣×∣), a group made of three numerals. We are now looking at it horizontally due to its length. It is made of stone with a penetrated hole. This was very difficult to make eight thousand years ago.
He was using this rod to distinguish direction. A bamboo stick was put through the hole and its shadow length under the sun was matched with the line standard. This determines East and West, and then confirmed North and South. This stone rod was very important to the tribe because they distinguished the correct directions depending on it. The numeral group must be used to record the directions, therefore, this numeral group meaning can be confirmed as East and West direction. This numeral group had been widely used until Zhou dynasty. If you don’t understand this, it is hard to get the meaning.
“Excuse me, I would like to confirm the times. Shennong Gua is from eight thousand years ago, which is 6000 BC. Is Fuxi Gua from nine thousand years ago?”
Yes correct, it is 7000 BC.
You can use the similar method to look at this symbol which was discovered in Kuahuqiao Site. The site mentioned above is at Pengtoushan in Province of Hunan. Pengtoushan site is from eight thousand years ago. There was a huge settlement at that time. This relic was only possessed by the leader of tribes, since it was very important and hard to be made.
This numeral Gua found in Kuahuqiao site is from 7500 years ago. It is located in Xiaoshan in the province Zhejiang. Shennong originated from Xiaoshan. As you can see, this is a symbol representing eight, and this represents ten. This indicates a development of decimal system. This had surpassed Fuxi which was quinary. It was a tremendous improvement from quinary to decimal by using eight (八) and ten （∣）to express numeral Gua. The Kuahuqiao site sunk into ocean in ancient. When discovered, the wooden rod was found preserved well in saline water for 7500 years.
This also indicates that people were using bones and wooden stick for measuring and calculation, which shows a close correlation between mathematics and numeral group system.
This bone rod was discovered in Province of JiangXi. The engravements are all numbers which contains number eight （八）.
This was discovered in the province of JiangSu. The two numerals look like “M” are a group of two Six（∧）. These two ∧∧is the sign of Shennong and Emporor Yan alliance and the Shennong tribe unity was using this sign to represent themselves. If you take a look at the oracle script for fire and mountain, you will understand why Shennong was referred as Flame Emperor or Mountain Emperor. Shennong was famous in creating burn cultivation and reclaim mountainous land.
This numeral group of Five (×) was pointing this direction . This numeral group of ∧∧represented his tribe as member of Shennong tribe unity.
This numeral Gua made of four numerals: eight-eight-two-one was discovered in Hemudu site which has number eight which suggests decimal system. The decimal system is the feature of Shennong Gua. The Chinese numeral system had surpassed the West which had not decimal system at that time. This suggest our numbers system was developed very long ago. Chinese had developed numbers about 30,000 ago. Through time of development, decimal system emerged about 7000 year ago, which is very admirable.
The math historians always wondered why Chinese arithmetic is the most advanced. It adopts system of multiplication.
If you study Arithmetic, you will find that the ancient West still uses system of addition. The Egyptian and Sumerian pictographic system of numbers are all based on addition, unlike ancient Chinese system which can use symbol for Five “X” to represent multiplication. From this fact, it is obvious to conclude that Chinese talent of mathematics has some correlation to these numeral group systems developed in ancient time.
Ok, lets move on to Gua in the time of Yellow Emperor. The main difference between Shennong and Yellow Emperor numeral groups is the latter emphasis on using the symbol for nine(∨).
23. Numeral Groups of Huangdi
Let us have a look at these numeral groups, they obviously formed a paragraph of meaning. Where was this discovered? This is the culture of Majiayao, which was found in Province of Qinghai. The site is in Liuwan. Anyone know this site? Liuwan in province of Qinghai? They started to have paragraphs or article of numeral groups.
I should have added similar example from Fuxi as they had a combination of numeral groups in paragraph too.
These different feature of Gua which can be used to deduce the time periods they existed. We have discovered many relics associated numeral groups from different times. This is how I can understand the history of Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Since we have set up an archaeological database from more than 400 pre-Qin cultural sites in China , we can understand more historical data about Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors than Si Maqiang(86 BC) who wrote Selections from Records of Historians covering up to Five Emperor.
We have data about Three Sovereigns because we collected these numeral groups and deduce the times when these were made. The age of Fuxi is from 9000 to 7500 ago; the age of Shennong is 7500 to 6000 year ago; the age of Yellow Emperor is 6000 to 4600 years ago.
Isn’t it clear? I have deduced this based on numeral groups which was the language they used at that time. If we systematically study the numeral groups, we will be able to understand their prehistory. Based on this database, we will find many evidences to understand the originals of science and civilization in China Just like those examples that I had explained, we should study every numeral group from pre-Qin sites to understand its original meaning to uncover the evolutionary history of Yi-lore. I don’t have so much time anymore; I will leave this to be continued by others.
24. Numeral Groups and Pottery or Bone Pictographs
Someone may ask there are two types of oracle bone inscriptions, one is ideogram and the other is pictograph which imitate objects. How does it look like?
This example is a pictograph which represents an object. This represents Sun and this one represents Eye. This is a pictograph of Gong “工“ which represented lower class of official leaders in tribes. This symbol “コ” represents our ancestors. It is marvelous to see an oracle-bone character representing ancestors from nine thousand years ago.
This is from the same archaeological site Jiahu. Jiahu site is one of our most precious archaeological sites. It is located in county of Wuyan in province of Henan. The materials of Fuxi is form this site.
These oracle characters like “Mu” and “Gong”. This “Gong” does not mean worker but working officials.
This is a shape of bird engraved on a flute. The bird on the flute represents Spring equinox and Autumn equinox since the birds always migrate based on these seasons.
This is a pictograph of earthworm which represents time for seeding. It is from Jiahu site but I didn’t show the full picture of it. It is carved at the bottom of a pot. This is discovered in Province of Hubei which is in the region of Three Gorges. It represents time for sowing which was critically important at that time. It then evolves into image of dragon, dragon face body, and serpent face body.
When earthworm comes out of ground, it presents time of insects awaken, which is an indicator of time of sowing. The correctness of timing determines whether there is harvest in autumn. It was very critical at that time, therefore recorded this pictograph.
This character for “大” is also important since it is the root of many other Chinese characters. The character for “Heaven” and “King” all came out of it. It represents the leader of the tribe which manage the calendar and responsible for Winter Solstice. Since Winter solstice is the beginning of the year, and it determines the calendar for food production, this leader had great powers. Therefore, his image was represented like this with symbol for Five (×) on the top.
Since then, many places had adopted this character “大” which represents leader. Then it evolved into characters of King (王) and Heaven （天） which represents supreme power. This will answer the question where pictographic inscriptions came from, it is from these pictographs then developed into oracle-bone inscriptions. The ideogram came from numeral groups. The Chinese writing system came from both of them. If we want to understand origin of text, we should start from numeral groups for ideogram (abstract characters) and pictographs for pictographic inscriptions (pictographic characters ).
25. Oracle-bone Inscription “Wen”(文)
Lets discuss the last topic today.
We have talked about ideograph in oracle-bone script. For example, this character “Wen”(文)。 This character consists of numeral for six （∧） and numeral for five （×）. Why use five and six? Our ancestors used six to represent heaven and five to represent earth. We have learnt that this numeral ×group represents directions on earth like East and West, and these two numerals will form a character called “Wen” meaning culture or literary. If you check old dictionary, this character means knowing of how to master heaven and earth（Astronomy and geography）.
What is called literary? In old Chinese culture, study of heaven and earth was literary. This person who knows heavy and earth would be called literate and would have ability to manage tribes and nations.
26. Oracle-bone Inscription “Shang” （商）
Ok, let’s look at this Character “Shang”（商） which as the title of Shang Dynasty was difficult to understand its origin.
Many oracle scholars cannot figure it out and considered this as an oddity in its shape and its origin is untraceable. If you know about numeral groups, you should able to see that this character is made of numeral groups: ≯ (numerals ∨ and 一), and︽ (∧∧),i.e. , “辛“and ”丙“ in oracle bone inscriptions.
This is earliest for of “Shang” (商) in oracle-bone inscriptions. The top part is the numeral group “∨一“. This numeral group came from Banpo site in Shanxi Province, belongs to Yangshao Culture of BC 4500-4100.
According my research, this numeral group as a clan sign represents Gaoxin clan. Gaoxin was a very important clan and the ancestor of Shang Dynasty. Banpo site was where they originally settled, and their clan sign was this numeral group “≯”， a reverse of “A”. Our alphabet “A” also came from this numeral group as a reverse of it. They had been using this symbol for their clan and carried it from Shanxi Province to Henan Province.
They were migrants following Yellow emperor. At that time, Yellow emperor intended to establish a united tribe state called the state of Youxiong, which was the oldest state in China. I brough up this fact which could not be known by many scholars from mainland China. They think Erlitou site was the oldest state in China, which is incorrect. The oldest state was established by Yellow Emperor in Xinzheng of Henan Province.
It is now discovered in Henan, called the old city of Xishan. This site is about 5300 years old, and the oldest state in the world. There was no state at that time thus it is the oldest. In the West, the oldest state was established by Sumerians about 5000 years ago. However, it was a city-state which cannot be paralleled to the state of Youxiong.
At that time, the clan of Gaoxin joined the state of Youxiong and became a critical part of the law system of the state. They would subdue the insurgents and punish the criminals. Especially every autumn, they would execute felons. Therefore, criminal law was under their control. Don’t you see there are many modern Chinese characters containing this part? Such as word for slaughter (宰), execution （執）, new （新）etc. There are many words in judicial system had this character “xin” （辛） as a part, but few people knew the origins of these words.
The Yellow Emperor sent the Gaoxin tribe to outpost at the border of the state of Youxiong and had them managed the law system. There are many relics discovered and they were labelled with this numeral group as their clan sign. Gaoxin clan used this numeral group to label on their utensils.
When it came to the time of Five Emperors, one of the emperors Diku was from Gaoxin clan and he had sovereign control. There were five emperors in Five Emperor Period of China, Shaohao(少昊), Zhuanxu （颛顼），Diku（帝喾）、Yao（唐尧）and Shun (虞舜)。Diku’s （帝喾）ancestor was Gaoxin clan and he became the leader of this tribe unity around his clan. Emperor Yao and Shun came after him.
Therefore, Gaoxin clan was very important. As their ancestor, the Shang tribe use Gaoxin clan sign “≯ (numerals ∨ and 一)” as the top of their state title，which was called “xin”(辛) in oracle bone inscription.
Under this sign there is a numeral group “︽” that was called “Bing (丙)” in oracle bone inscription.
This requires everyone to know about the heaven stem system: Jia(甲), Yi（乙, Bing （丙）, Ding （丁）, Wu （戊）, Ji （己）, Geng （庚）, Xin （辛）, Ren （壬）, Kui （癸）. As you see, the locations of “Bing”（丙） and “Xin” （辛）are in between every two heavenly stems.
Everyone knows about the ten heavenly stems. These ten symbols representing sequence or order of heaven motion. Therefore, Shang people combined the two numeral groups in the middle of every two heavenly stems to represent that they were the center of the heaven.
This is what the character “Shang” (商) means. The “Bing” is located in these two stems, and the “Xin” is located in between these two stems. Therefore, they called themselves “The Central Shang”. It also appears in oracle-bone inscriptions. They said, “we are the central Shang”.
This meaning began since then and it was a very clever thought. Later, they wanted to deify their ancestor and added a pictograph “Τ” under “≯”.This is how the early form ≯ became oracle script
This is what it means. Whenever you see a pictograph “Τ”, it represents deity. This “Τ” is a pictograph which also represents scepter. This is how character “Shang” was created from the two numeral groups : “≯” and “︽”.
27. Oracle-bone Inscription “Jin (晋)”
Let’s look at this character “Jin”. The reason I want to explain this one is because it is also the name of Hexagram 35 in Yi-classics. This hexagram is hard for interpretation since many don’t understand this came from this oracle-bone script. If you look at the top part, it has two arrows point down ↓↓. In fact, they are two numeral groups “I ∨” which represents Summer solstice. The two numeral groups mean that this job for determining Summer solstice needs to be done carefully 送that the Summer solstice needs to be done by measuring twice the sun shadow length. Therefore, this character “Jin (晋)” represents caution, respect and carefulness. This the original meaning of “Jin (晋)” in oracle bone inscription.
However, years later, this character was changed and no long considered as representing Summer Solstice, it was interpreted as two arrows pointing down and thought it was using arrows for attack. Then, it transformed to the character we used today. Confucius had interpreted this “Jin (晋)” as “progress“, ”attack” but he didn’t know it has meaning of caution and carefulness.
These two meanings are both represented in Hexagram 35 as cautious in attack. With these meanings, you would understand the name of this hexagram meaning neither “cautious” nor “attack” alone. They must be together to complete the full meaning.
Therefore, only when you understand pre-oracle bone and oracle-bone inscriptions from Xia and Shang Dynasty, you would have clues to understand Yi-classics. This is the secret key.
28. Oracle-bone Inscription “Yi(（夷）”
Let’s look at this character “Yi （夷）” which was created from numeral groups.
One part of it is an arrow point up↑ which represents important tribe for determining Winter solstice, since this numeral group “↑（∧I）” represents Winter solstice. It is an important numeral group。 This character also has two parts of “S “and “大”
This numeral group “↑” represents Dongyi (东夷) People. It indicates the people sent by Dahao （大昊 ， 即伏羲）, who manage Winter solstice，and the numeral group “S (∧∨)” represents the transformation of Summer solstice into Winter solstice, Days into Nights. The “大” pictograph was created by Dongyi （东夷） people to represent the leader of a tribe, who masters the transformation of Summer solstice into Winter solstice.
Thus, this oracle bone character (夷) has many meanings. Beside Winter solstice, and leader, it has a part “ S”, which was formed by numeral groups of ∧(Abbreviation of numeral group of Winter solstice) and ∨(Abbreviation of numeral group of Summer solstice ). It represents the transformation of Summer solstice into Winter solstice and vice versa; thus.
It was later interpreted as flat which also represents transition from dark to light; light to dark, and it represented both dark and light. Then it was interpreted as darkness.
It is hard to understand the name of hexagram 36 “mingyi (明夷)”. If you check on the explanation by Zhuxi (朱熹), he had not explained it as he didn’t know the meaning of this character in oracle bone inscription.
There are also many people thought “mingyi 明夷” means a kind of birds, but this meaning is not consistent with other line statement of this hexagram. If we use the understanding on the oracle script, it would become easier to understand. What is “MingYi”?
It represented the Migratory bird as the meanings of this character “夷“ at the first line statement of the hexagram. However, beside that statement, it means the light was covered by the dark and the transition from light to darkness.
In conclusion, without understanding of oracle-bone inscriptions, you will not understand Yi-classics. Thank you, this is the end of lecture.